Lesson 2: Novell Operating Systems
In this lesson, we take a look at Novell's network operating systems, in
particular NetWare, one of the most popular NOSs. Novell also offers client
software that is designed to run on top of other computer operating systems.
Introduction to NetWare
The NetWare NOS consists of server and client applications. The client
application is designed to run on a variety of client operating systems.
The server application can be accessed by client users from computers running
MS-DOS, Microsoft Windows (versions 3.x, 95, and 98, and Windows
NT), OS/2, AppleTalk, or UNIX. NetWare is often the NOS of choice in mixed
operating-system environments. In small networks, however, NetWare can
be expensive and complicated for an inexperienced network technician to
install and administer.
Version 3.2 of NetWare is a 32-bit NOS that supports Windows (versions
3.x, 95, and 98 and Windows NT), UNIX, Mac OS, and MS-DOS environments.
With NetWare version 4.11, also called IntranetWare, Novell introduced
its new NOS, Novell Directory Services (NDS). Version 5, the latest version
to be released, addresses the integration of LANs, WANs, network applications,
intranets, and the Internet, into a single global network.
Novell Directory Services (NDS) provides name services as well as security,
routing, messaging, management, Web publishing, and file and print services.
Using X.500 directory architecture, it organizes all network resources,
including users, groups, printers, servers, and volumes. NDS also provides
a single-point logon for the user; with it, a user can log on to any server
on the network and have access to all their usual user rights and privileges.
Other NOSs provide client software for interoperability with NetWare
servers. For example, Windows NT provides Gateway Services for NetWare
(GSNW). With this service, a Windows NT server can obtain access to NetWare
file and print services.
With NetWare Client installed, any client workstation can take full advantage
of the resources provided by a NetWare Server. The following is a summary
of some of the more important services provided.
NetWare file services are part of the NDS database. NDS provides a single-point
logon for users and allows users and administrators alike to view network
resources in the same way. Depending on the client software installed,
you can view the entire network in a format that is native to your workstation
operating system. For example, a Microsoft Windows client can map a logical
drive to any NetWare file server volume or directory, and the NetWare resources
will appear as logical drives on their computer. These logical drives function
just like any other drive in their computer.
NetWare provides extensive security, including:
Logon security Provides authentication verification based on user
name, passwords, and time and account restrictions.
Trustee rights Controls which directories and files a user can access
and what the user is able to do with them.
Directory and file attributes Identifies the kinds of actions that
can be carried out on a file (viewed, written to, copied, made shareable
or nonshareable, or deleted).
Printing services are transparent (invisible) to the user of a client computer.
Any print request from a client is redirected to the file server, where
it is handed off to the print server and finally to the printer. (The same
computer can serve as both file server and printer server.) You can share
printer devices that are attached to the server, to a workstation, or directly
to the network by means of the devices' own network interface card (NIC).
NetWare print services can support up to 256 printers.
Sending Messages to Others
By using some simple commands, users can send a short message to other
users on the network. Messages can be sent to groups as well as to individuals.
If all the intended recipients are in the same group, address the message
to the group rather than to each individual. Users can also disable or
enable this command for their workstations. When a user disables the command,
no broadcast messages will be received by that workstation.
Messages can also be handled through the Message Handling Service (MHS).
MHS can be installed on any server and configured for a fully interconnected
message infrastructure for e-mail distribution. MHS supports most popular
Full NOS interoperability is not always possible. This is especially true
when two dissimilar networks, such as NetWare and Windows NT, are being
connected. A NetWare environment, centered on its directory services, and
Windows NT, operating on a domain model, are inherently incompatible. To
overcome this problem, Windows NT developed NWLink and GSNW, discussed
earlier, that allow them to interoperate. These services allow a server
on the Windows NT network to act as a gateway to the NetWare network. Any
workstations on the Windows NT network can request resources or services
available on the NetWare network, but they must make the request through
the Windows NT server. The server will then act as a client on the NetWare
network, passing requests between the two networks.
A NetWare network consists of ___________ and ___________ applications.
NetWare is often the NOS of choice in _________ computer operating system
With NetWare client software installed, computers can view NetWare resources
as if they were ___________ to the client.
NetWare __________ ______________ can support up to 256 printers.
NetWare servers provide services to computers on a Windows NT network through
the Windows NT server's ________________ service.
The following points summarize the main elements of the lesson:
NetWare client software is designed to be installed over a client computer's
The NetWare NOS is designed to work in multivendor network environments.
NetWare Directory Services (NDS) provide a database that maintains information
about every resource on the network.
NDS provides security, routing, messaging, management, Web publishing,
file and print services, and name services.
A NetWare network requires both NetWare Server software for the server
and NetWare Client software for each workstation.